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- USMLE Audio Review files from our “Gold Standard USMLE Reviews”
- Transcriptions of those files
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- Listening to the Audio
- Following along with the transcription
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Let’s start our USMLE Review with Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism from the Gold Standard USMLE Foundations of Medicine Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 11 05 Hyperthyroidism Below
Begin 11 05 Hyperthyroidism Transcription
Moving on now to our discussion of hyperthyroidism. We will be using heavily the associated term thyrotoxocosis.
What is a simple definition of thyrotoxocosis as a clinical syndrome?
- Thyrotoxocosis is the clinical syndrome which results when tissues are exposed to high levels of circulating thyroid hormone. For the most part, thyrotoxicosis is due to hyperthyroidism which is hyperactivity of the thyroid gland.
Occasionally, thyrotoxicosis is due to excessive ingestion of thyroid hormone and excessive secretion of thyroid hormone from which sites?
- Thyrotoxicosis can be caused by excessive thyroid hormone secretion from ectopic sites.
We’ll identify the various forms of thyrotoxicosis and then look at each one individually. By far the most common form of thyrotoxicosis can occur at any age and is more likely in females than males.
It is also referred to as diffuse toxic goiter. What is this disease?
- Graves’ disease.
A second form of thyrotoxicosis is alternatively called toxic adenoma or toxic nodular goiter and it results from an overactive thyroid or tumor.
What disease is this?
- Starting with capital P. Plummer’s disease.
A third variety of thyrotoxicosis is a slight variant of Plummer’s disease, involving more than one nodule. Toxic multinodular goiter.
A fourth variety is characterized by gland tenderness, fever, difficulty swallowing, fatigue and severe pain in the neck, ears and jaw. It is also called de Quervain’s thyroiditis.
What is its more common name?
- Subacute thyroiditis.
A fifth form of thyrotoxicosis involves which phase of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis?
- The hyperthyroid phase.
And a sixth variety is a psychoneurotic disturbance caused by excessive ingestion of Thyroxine or thyroid hormone.
What is this condition?
- Thyrotoxicosis factitia.
Student doctor please pause the tape and repeat 6 forms of thyrotoxicosis, starting with the most common form. Graves’ disease is by far the most common form of thyrotoxicosis, followed by Plummer’s disease, toxic multinodular goiter, de Quervain’s or subacute thyroiditis, the hyperthyroid phase of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and thyrotoxicosis factitia.
- Next we list six rarer causes or forms of thyrotoxicosis. I’ll just give the list and ask you to repeat it back: Ovarian struma, metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma, hydatidiform mole which is a tumor-like mass of cysts, so called Hamburger thyrotoxicosis, TSH secreting pituitary tumor, and pituitary resistance to T3 and T4.
Student doctor please pause the tape and repeat 6 rarer causes or forms of thyrotoxicosis.
- Six rarer causes or forms of thyrotoxicosis include ovarian struma, metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma, hydatidiform mole, hamburger thyrotoxicosis, TSH secreting pituitary tumor, and pituitary resistance to T3 and T4.
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