On these “Gold Standard Step 1 Facts” pages you will find Free:
- USMLE Audio Review files from our “Gold Standard USMLE Reviews”
- Transcriptions of those files
- And videos (as they become available)
The idea is that you can review for the USMLE online by:
- Listening to the Audio
- Following along with the transcription
- Or by watching the video (if available)
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Let’s start our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 25 10 Summary Clinical Correlations Below
Begin 25 10 Summary Clinical Correlations Transcription
Student doctor, please pause and summarize the clinical correlations relating to the flow of CSF. A noncommunicating or obstructive hydrocephalus results from any obstruction which keeps CSF from entering the subarachnoid space from the fourth ventricle. For this reason, the obstruction must be above the three foramina in the fourth ventricle by which the CSF moves from the fourth ventricle to the subarachnoid space. These foramina are the two lateral foramina of Luschka and the medial foramen of Magendie. The structure that the CSF comes through to enter the fourth ventricle is the aqueduct of Sylvius. If the aqueduct of Sylvius were blocked, and it is a common site of blockage, the resulting hydrocephalus would be a noncommunicating or obstructive hydrocephalus. In a noncommunicatiing hydrocephalus, the intraventricular pressure of the CSF is increased. A common symptom of increased intraventricular pressure is headache, and a common sign of increased intraventricular pressure is papilledema upon a fundoscopic examination. If there is blockage or impared reuptake distal to the fourth ventricle, then the hydrocephalus that results is a communicating or a nonobstructive hydrocephalus. Another name for a communicating or a nonobstructive hydrocephalus is normal pressure hydrocephalus.
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