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Let’s start our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 26 07 Hypothalamus (5_6) Below
Begin 26 07 Hypothalamus (5_6) Transcription
Ok let’s move on. The tuberal region of the hypothalamus contains three major nuclei. Student doctor, please name these three major nuclei in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus.
First, the dorsomedial nucleus.
Second, the ventromedial nucleus, and
third, the arcuate nucleus.
Student doctor, please pause and describe the functions of the ventromedial nucleus in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus. The ventromedial nucleus in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus is also called the satiety center. Stimulation of the satiety center results in decreased appetite.
Student doctor, what is the name of the phenomenon that results from a bilateral lesion to the ventromedial nuclei?
- This is referred to as hypothalamic obesity.
What are the three characteristics of the phenomenon of hypothalamic obesity resulting from a bilateral lesion to the ventromedial nuclei?
- The three characteristics of the hypothalamic obesity phenomenon are hyperphagia, obesity, and savage behavior.
And again, in which region of the hypothalamus are the ventromedial nuclei?
- The tuberal region.
The mammillary region of the hypothalamus contains two groups of nuclei. Student doctor, what are these two groups called?
- The mammillary nuclei and the posterior nucleus.
The mammillary nuclei receive projection from where?
- From the hippocampus.
And the mammillary nuclei project to what two regions or structures?
- The reticular formation and the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.
Student doctor, what is the function of the posterior nucleus of the mammillary region of the hypothalamus?
- The posterior nucleus of the mammilary region of the hypothalamus is involved in thermal regulation, including heat conservation.
Student doctor, what would be the result of a lesion to the posterior nucleus of the mammillary region?
- A lesion to the posterior nucleus in the mammillary region results in poikolothermia.
What does the term poikolothermia refer to?
- Poikolothermia refers to a body temperature that fluctuates with the environmental temperature.
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