USMLE Step 1 Physiology Review 53 08 Neuronal Synapses (3 of 3)

USMLE Step 1 Physiology Review 53 08 Neuronal Synapses (3 of 3)

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Begin 53 08 Neuronal Synapses (3 of 3) Transcription

Okay, now we are going to discuss the different neurotransmitters.  There are a variety of chemicals that are secreted as neurotransmitters.  The next section will help you learn the transmitter, its primary location in the brain, and its function.

What is the transmitter whose location in the brain is the substantia nigra?

  • Dopamine.

This transmitter is important in maintaining circadian rhythms.  What is it?

  • Melatonin.

Where is melatonin located in the brain?

  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus.

The loss of this transmitter from the brain leads to Parkinson’s Disease.  What is it?

  • Dopamine.

What is the transmitter at skeletal neuromuscular junctions?

  • Acetylcholine.

What is the location of the acetylcholine in the brain?

  • The Basal Nucleus of Meynert and diffuse locations.

This transmitter controls pleasure feelings.  What is it?

  •  Endorphins.

The anterior pituitary is the primary location of this neurotransmitter.  What is it?

  • Endorphins.

What disease results from the loss of acetylcholine and GABA from the brain?

  • Huntington’s Disease.

What are the two brain locations of norepinephrine?

  • Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and the locus coeruleus.

What neurotransmitter controls satiety?

  • Norepinephrine.

What transmitter is located in the raphe nucleus?

  • Serotonin.

What kind of activity does serotonin facilitate?

  • Motor activity.

The loss of this transmitter from the brain is associated with Alzheimer’s Disease.  What’s the transmitter?

  • Acetylcholine.

What is the major excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system?

  • Glutamate.

What is the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain?

  • GABA

What is the major inhibitory transmitter in the spinal cord?

  • Glycine

Where are peptide neurotransmitters, such as endorphins, substance P, and bradykinin synthesized?

  •  They are synthesized in the cell body and transported along the axon to the nerve terminal.

Where are glutamate, GABA and glycine synthesized?

  • They are synthesized at the nerve terminals where they are released.

Is dopamine excitatory or inhibitory?

  • Inhibitory.

How about epinephrine?

  • It’s excitatory.

Patients with excessive secretion of this transmitter have seasonal affective disorder, or SAD.  What is the transmitter?

  • Melatonin.

What is the treatment for SAD?

  • Exposure to bright lights during the day.

Student Doctor, please summarize the neurotransmitter, its location in the brain and either its function or the disease associated with the loss of the neurotransmitter.  Include any other information discussed in this past section.  Here is a list of the neurotransmitters I want you to provide summary information for:  Acetylcholine, GABA, Dopamine, Glutamate, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, Melatonin, Endorphins.

  • One location of acetylcholine is in the Basal Nucleus of Meynert and the loss of acetylcholine at this locus is associated with Alzheimer’s Disease.  The neostriatum is the locus for acetylcholine and GABA.  The loss of acetylcholine or GABA in this locus leads to Huntington’s Disease.  Dopamine is located in the substantia nigra and its loss leads to Parkinson’s Disease.  Dopamine is inhibitory, whereas epinephrine is excitatory.  Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system.  One location for norepinephrine is in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and it controls satiety.  Another locus for norepinephrine is in the locus coeruleus.  Serotonin is located in the raphe nucleus, and it facilitates motor activity.  Melatonin is in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and it controls circadian rhythms.  Patients with excessive secretions of melatonin experience SAD, which stands for seasonal affective disorder.  The treatment for SAD is exposure to bright lights during the day.  Endorphins are in the anterior pituitary and they control pleasure feelings.

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