USMLE Step 1 Physiology Review 54 12 Cardiovascular Physiology Intro (2 of 3)

USMLE Step 1 Physiology Review 54 12 Cardiovascular Physiology Intro (2 of 3)

 

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Let’s start our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.

Play USMLE Audio MP3 54 12 Cardiovascular Physiology Intro (2 of 3) Below

Begin 54 12 Cardiovascular Physiology Intro (2 of 3) Transcription

Okay, let’s talk about the ventricles. The right ventricle:

Does the right ventricle pump spent blood, or freshly oxygenated blood?

  • It pumps spent blood that is returned from the body tissues. The spent blood has its oxygen content reduced and its carbon dioxide content increased.

The right ventricle pumps large amounts of blood at low pressures. Where does it pump the blood?

  • The right ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary circulation.

When the right ventricle ejects blood, what happens to the free wall of the right ventricle?

  • It shortens.

What happens to the interventricular septum when the right ventricle ejects blood?

  • It bulges into the right ventricle.

What is the shape of the normal cross section of the right ventricular chamber?

  • shaped.

If the right ventricular must eject blood against high pressure for prolonged periods as is seen in pulmonary diseases, what kind of morphological changes would take place in the right ventricle?

  • The right ventricle would be more cylindrical and the free wall would be thickened.

Student Doctor, please pause the tape and summarize the information on the right ventricle.

  • The right ventricle pumps spent blood that is returned from the body tissues with its oxygen content reduced and its carbon dioxide content increased. The right ventricle pumps larger amounts of blood at low pressures through the pulmonary circulation. When the right ventricle ejects blood the free wall of the right ventricle shortens and the interventricular septum bulges into the right ventricle. The normal cross of the right ventricular chamber is crescent shaped. If the right ventricle must eject blood against high pressure or for prolonged periods as is seen in some pulmonary diseases, the right ventricle would be more cylindrical and the free wall would be thickened.

Alright, let’s learn about the left ventricle. Through what circulation does the left ventricle pump blood?

  • Through the systemic circulation.

Is the free wall of the left ventricle thicker or thinner than the free wall of the right ventricle?

  • Normally the free wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the free wall of the right ventricle.

What is the shape of the left ventricle?

  • It is roughly cylindrical in shape.

How does the left ventricle eject blood?

  • It ejects blood by reducing the cross-sectional area of the cylinder.

Which ventricle works harder

  • The left ventricle.

Why does the left ventricle have to work harder than the right?

  • Because of the higher pressures of the systemic circulation relative to the pulmonary circulation.

Consequently, which ventricle is commonly affected by disease processes?

  • The left ventricle.

Student Doctor, please pause the tape and summarize the information on the left ventricle.

  • The left ventricle pumps blood through systemic circulation. Normally, the free wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the free wall of the right ventricle. The left ventricle is roughly cylindrical in shape and it ejects blood by reducing the cross-sectional area of the cylinder. The left ventricle works harder than the right because of the higher pressure of the systemic circulation relative to the pulmonary circulation.   Consequently, the left is more commonly affected by disease processes.

****END OF TRANSCRIPTION****

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