USMLE Step 1 Renal Physiology 1 Review 58 02 Functions of the Kidneys

USMLE Step 1 Renal Physiology 1 Review 58 02 Functions of the Kidneys

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Play USMLE Audio MP3 58 02 Functions of the Kidneys Below

Begin 58 02 Functions of the Kidneys Transcription

Let’s begin our study of renal physiology with the basic function, structure, and blood flow of the kidneys.

The maintenance of what status or state is the primary function of the kidneys? It starts with an H.

  • The primary function of the kidneys is the maintenance of homeostasis.

To do this, what two aspects of extracellular fluid do the kidneys regulate? They start with V and C.

  • Volume and composition. Renal physiology is the study of why composition and volume of extracellular fluid are important, as well as the study of how the kidneys keep them in balance. For homeostasis to be maintained the total of the body’s consumption and excretion of most substances has to equal their intake and production.

Via what system do water and electrolytes enter the body primarily? It starts with a G.

  • Primarily water and electrolytes enter the body via the gastrointestinal system.

What is another source of water for the body? It starts with an M.

  • Metabolism is another source of water.

Via what kidney product are water and solutes excreted from the body?

  • Urine.

Under normal circumstances how much urine do healthy kidneys produce and excrete per day?

  • Healthy kidneys normally produce and excrete from one to 1.5 liters of urine per day.

Alphabetically, list the three metabolites found in urine. I’ll cue you with the first letter of each. First, C. Creatinine. Second, U.

  • Urea and third, UA. Uric acid.

Which of these is a nontoxic product of nitrogen metabolism?

  • Urea.

Which is produced by purine metabolism?

  • Uric acid.

Evaporation from what two body structures also accounts for a good portion of daily water loss?

  • Evaporation from the lungs and the skin is another big source of water loss.

What is this called? The answer starts with IWL.

  • Insensible water loss.

Finally, via what other two body products is water also excreted? They start with F and SS.

  • Water is also excreted from the body via feces and sensible sweat.

Student doctor, please pause the tape and summarize what we’ve discussed about the primary role of the kidneys.

  • The primary function of the kidneys is the maintenance of homeostasis. To do this, the kidneys regulate the volume and composition of extracellular fluid. Renal physiology is the study of why volume and composition of extracellular fluid are important as well as the study of how the kidneys keep them in balance. For homeostasis to be maintained the total of the body’s consumption and excretion of most substances has to equal their intake and production. Primarily water and electrolytes enter the body via the gastrointestinal system. Metabolism is another source of water. Water and solutes are excreted from the body via the kidney product urine. Under normal circumstances healthy kidneys produce and excrete from one to 1.5 liters of urine per day. Three metabolites found in urine are creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Urea is a nontoxic product of nitrogen metabolism and uric acid is produced by purine metabolism. Evaporation from the lungs and skin is another big source of water loss. This is called insensible water loss. Finally water is also excreted from the body via feces and sensible sweat.

 

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