USMLE Step 1 Renal Physiology 1 Review 58 05 Nephron Structure, Collecting Ducts, Connecting Tubule

USMLE Step 1 Renal Physiology 1 Review 58 05 Nephron Structure, Collecting Ducts, Connecting Tubule

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Play USMLE Audio MP3 58 05 Nephron Structure, Collecting Ducts, Connecting Tubule Below

Begin 58 05 Nephron Structure, Collecting Ducts, Connecting Tubule Transcription

What is the primary functional unit of the kidneys? It starts with an N.

  • The primary functional unit of the kidneys is the nephron.

And about how many nephrons are there in each kidney?

  • In each kidney there are about one million little nephrons.

What are the four main functions of the nephrons? I’ll cue you with the first letter of each.

First, BF.

  • Blood filtration.

Second, R.

  • Reabsorption.

Third, S.

  • Secretion

and fourth, UP.

  • Urine production.

What part of the nephron filters the blood? It starts with a G.

  • Glomerulus.

Where do secretion and reabsorption occur? The answer begins with RT.

  • Secretion and reabsorption occur in the renal tubules.

What about urine production? Where does that happen?

  • Also in the renal tubules.

What is a glomerulus?

  • A glomerulus is a tiny tuft or mass of capillaries surrounded by an enclosing structure.

What is the name of the structure that surrounds the glomerular capillaries? It starts with BC.

  • Bowman’s capsule.

What is another name for the glomerulus with its enclosing capsule? It starts with RC.

  • Renal corpuscle.

After the glomerulus, list the four parts of the nephron in proximal to distal order. I’ll cue you with the first letters of each.

First, PCT.

  • Proximal convoluted tubule.

Second, PST.

  • Proximal straight tubule

and third, LOH.

  • Loop of Henle. Fourth, DCT. Distal convoluted tubule.

What is the descending part of the Loop of Henle called? It starts with TDL.

  • Thin descending limb.

What are the two ascending parts of the Loop of Henle called? They both start with TAL.

  • Thin ascending limb and thick ascending limb.

Student doctor, please pause the tape briefly and repeat, from proximal to distal, the seven parts of a nephron.

  • The glomerulus, the proximal convoluted tubule, the proximal straight tubule, the thin descending limb of the Loop of Henle, the thin ascending limb of Henle, the thick ascending limb of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule. The tubular fluid from six to eight nephrons drains into another tubule which also participates in tubular transport and the production of urine.

What are these structures called? They start with CD.

  • Collecting ducts. Some authorities list the collecting duct as part of the nephron.

What are the two parts of a collecting duct? They start with CCD and MCD.

  • The two parts of a collecting duct are the cortical collecting duct and the medullary collecting duct.

What is the little arched tubule called that attaches the distal convoluted tubule to the cortical collecting duct? It starts with CT.

  • The connecting tubule.        

Student doctor, please pause the tape and summarize what we’ve discussed about the nephron, its primary functions and its components.

  • The primary functional unit of the kidneys is the nephron. In each kidney there are about one million nephrons. Blood filtration, which occurs in the glomerulus, and urine production, which occurs in the renal tubules, are two functions of the nephrons. Two other nephron functions are secretion and reabsorption, both of which occur in the renal tubules. A glomerulus or renal corpuscle is a tiny tuft or mass of capillaries surrounded by Bowman’s capsule. After the glomerulus, the segments of the nephron in proximal to distal order are the proximal convoluted tubule, the proximal straight tubule, the thin descending limb of the Loop of Henle, the thin and thick ascending limbs of the Loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule. The tubular fluid from six to eight nephrons drains into another tubule which also participates in tubular transport and urine production. These structures are called collecting ducts. Some authorities list the collecting duct as part of the nephron. The two parts of a collecting duct are the cortical collecting duct and the medullary collecting duct. The connecting tubule is a little arched tubule that attaches the distal convoluted tubule to the cortical collecting duct.

 

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