On these “Gold Standard Step 1 Facts” pages you will find Free:
- USMLE Audio Review files from our “Gold Standard USMLE Reviews”
- Transcriptions of those files
- And videos (as they become available)
The idea is that you can review for the USMLE online by:
- Listening to the Audio
- Following along with the transcription
- Or by watching the video (if available)
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Let’s start our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 58 11 Fluid Volume Abnormalities Below
Begin 58 11 Fluid Volume Abnormalities Transcription
What hormone regulates the volume of the body’s fluid compartments? It starts with an A.
- Aldosterone regulates the volume of the body’s fluid compartments.
What hormone regulates the concentration of body fluids?
- ADH or antidiuretic hormone regulates the concentration of body fluids.
What two conditions are abnormalities of body fluid volume? They start with D and O.
- Dehydration and overhydration.
Both dehydration and overhydration have to do with a change in the volume of which fluid compartment?
- The volume of the extracellular fluid.
What is the term for solutions that will cause a cell to swell and even sometimes to burst? It starts with an H.
- Hypotonic solutions.
What about solutions that make a cell shrink?
- Hypertonic solutions.
What about solutions that have no effect on the volume of the cell?
- Isotonic solutions have no effect on the cell’s volume.
How is dehydration defined?
- Water deprivation or reduced water content.
What determines the volume of extracellular fluid?
- The body’s sodium content.
List three states of dehydration.
- Hyperosmotic, hyposmotic, and isosmotic.
List three causes of isosmotic dehydration. I’ll cue you with the first letter of each.
and third, V.
How can burned skin cause isosmotic dehydration?
- Plasma exuding through burned skin can cause isosmotic dehydration.
What state of dehydration can be caused by these things: fever, heavy sweating, not drinking enough water, diabetes, and alcoholism?
- Hyperosmotic dehydration.
Finally, what state of dehydration is associated with Addison’s Disease?
- Hyposmotic dehydration is associated with Addison’s Disease.
The next four questions are about the physical signs of dehydration involving decreases in interstitial volume. For each, I’ll cue you with a word or phrase. Please respond with a physical sign.
First, the temperature and color of the skin.
- Cool, gray skin.
Second, what happens when the skin is pinched together. The answer starts with a T.
Third, the eyeballs.
- Soft and sunken.
Fourth, the mucous membranes.
Fifth, what happens to an infants head?
- Sunken fontanels.
The next few questions are about some of the physical signs of dehydration involving decreases in plasma volume. As before, I’ll cue you. Please respond with the sign.
First, heart rate.
- Increased heart rate.
Second, arterial pulse.
- Increased arterial pulse.
Third, what happens to blood pressure in severe cases?
- Decreased blood pressure.
Student doctor, please pause the tape and summarize what we’ve discussed about fluid volume abnormalities and the hormones that regulated the volume and concentration of body fluids. The hormone aldosterone regulates the volume of the body’s fluid compartments and antidiuretic hormone, ADH, regulates the concentration of body fluids.
The two abnormalities of body fluid volume are dehydration and overhydration, both of which have to do with a change in the volume of the extracellular fluid. Hypotonic solutions will cause a cell to swell and even sometimes to burst. Hypertonic solutions make a cell shrink and isotonic solutions don’t affect the volume of a cell at all. Although dehydration is defined as reduced water content or water deprivation, the volume of extracellular fluid is determined by the body’s sodium content. The three states of dehydration are hyperosmotic, hyposmotic, and isosmotic. Isosmotic dehydration can be caused by diarrhea, hemorrhage, and vomiting. Plasma exuding through burned skin can also cause isosmotic dehydration. Causes of hyperosmotic dehydration are fever, heavy sweating, not drinking enough water, diabetes, and alcoholism. Hyposmotic dehydration is associated with Addison’s Disease. The physical signs of dehydration involving decreases in interstitial volume are cool, gray skin, tenting of the skin when it is pinched together, soft, sunken eyeballs, dry mucous membranes, and sunken fontanels in infants. Some of the physical signs of dehydration involving decreases in plasma volume are increased heart rate and arterial pulse and in severe cases, decreased blood pressure.
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