USMLE Step 1 Respiratory Physiology Review 60 02 Various Aspects Of Respiration

USMLE Step 1 Respiratory Physiology Review 60 02 Various Aspects Of Respiration

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Play USMLE Audio MP3 60 02 Various Aspects Of Respiration Below

Begin 60 02 Various Aspects Of Respiration Transcription

Let’s begin with various aspects of respiration. The word respiration refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and an organism. .All the cells in the human body need a continuous supply of oxygen and must constantly eliminate the metabolic waste product, carbon dioxide. The primary function of the human respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the tissues and to remove carbon dioxide from the tissues and eliminate it from the body.

List the three main types of respiration.  I’ll cue you with the first letter of each one.

  •  First, E- external. Second I-internal. Third C-cellular    

One type of respiration is a two -fold process involving the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and the blood. What is this kind of respiration called?

  • External respiration involves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and the blood.

Another kind of respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the tissues. What is this type of respiration called?

  • Internal Respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the tissues.

Finally, what type of respiration involves the utilization of oxygen within the cells and the excretion of carbon dioxide by the cells?

  • The utilization of oxygen within the cells and  excretion of carbon dioxide by the cells is called cellular respiration.

Student doctor please pause the tape and summarize what we have discussed about the definition of respiration and the three kinds of respiration.

  •  The word respiration refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and an organism. The primary function of the human respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the tissues and to remove carbon dioxide from the tissues and eliminate it from the body. The three main types of respiration are external, internal, and cellular. External respiration involves the exchange of gases between the environment and the blood. Internal respiration involves the exchange of gases between the blood and the tissues. Cellular respiration is the utilization of oxygen within the cells. External Respiration involves two functions. The most obvious of these, commonly called breathing, is the mechanical process by which air moves in and out of the lungs.

What is this process called? It starts with the letter V.

  • The process by which air moves in and out of the lungs is called ventilation of the lungs or pulmonary ventilation.

What are the two phases of pulmonary ventilation?

  • Inspiration and expiration.

The second function of external respiration is the exchange of gases between what two substances?

  •  Between alveolar air and blood in the pulmonary capillaries.

Student doctor please pause the tape and summarize what we have discussed about the functions of external respiration and the phases of breathing. External respiration involves two functions.

One of these is ventilation of the lungs or pulmonary ventilation. Ventilation of the lungs is the mechanical process by which air moves in and out of the lungs. The two phases of pulmonary ventilation are inspiration and expiration. The second function of external respiration is the exchange of gases between alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. The air passages of the respiratory system can be divided can into two functional zones. One of these zones is inside the lungs where the gas exchange between the air and the blood occurs.

What is this zone called? It begins with the letter R.

  • Respiratory zone.

The respiratory zone consists mainly of the tiny balloon like air sacs clustered at the terminal end of each respiratory bronchial. What are these lung structures called?

  •  Alveoli.

The other functional zone of the respiratory system includes all of the structures of the body through which air passes before it reaches the respiratory zone. This zone begins with the letter C. What is it?

  • Conducting zone.

From cephalad to caudad, list the seven main structures of the conducting zone. Ill cue you with the first letter of each.
First, N

  •  Nose or nasal cavity.

Second, M

  •  Mouth

Third, P

  •  Pharynx

Fourth, L

  • Larynx

Fifth, T

  • Trachea

Sixth, B

  •  Bronchi.

Seventh, B

  •  Bronchioles.

Student doctor, please pause the tape and summarize what we have discussed about the respiratory zone, the conducting zone, and the structures comprising each.

  •  The air passages of the respiratory system can be divided into two functional zones. The respiratory zone is inside the lungs where the gas exchange between the air and the blood takes place. The respiratory zone consists mainly of the alveoli. The other functional zone is called the conducting zone and includes all the structures through which air passes before it reaches the respiratory zone. That is, nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. Respiratory or pulmonary physiology is mainly concerned with the processes of external respiration. The most important of these processes are 1) The mechanics of breathing, 2) Gas transport 3) Gas exchange across the blood-gas barrier and 4) Respiratory control.

 

 

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