On these “Gold Standard Step 1 Facts” pages you will find Free:
- USMLE Audio Review files from our “Gold Standard USMLE Reviews”
- Transcriptions of those files
- And videos (as they become available)
The idea is that you can review for the USMLE online by:
- Listening to the Audio
- Following along with the transcription
- Or by watching the video (if available)
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Let’s start our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 61 05 Acid Base Disorders 3_3 Below
Begin 61 05 Acid Base Disorders 3_3 Transcription
The following are possible causes for one of the four disorders we’ve been discussing. Air way obstruction, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD, Polio, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, Multiple sclerosis, Opiates, and Sedatives.
These are all possible causes of which disorder?
- Respiratory acidosis
Why do these things cause respiratory acidosis?
- They lead to hypoventilation. So you’re not blowing off CO2.
For which disorder are these the possible causes? Ketoacidosis including diabetic chronic renal failure, diarrhea, salicylate overdose, and lactate acidosis.
- Metabolic acidosis.
And why do they cause metabolic acidosis?
- They are metabolic processes that are creating more hydrogen ions in the blood.
For which of the four disorders are the following possible causes?
- Pneumonia, high altitudes, salicylate overdose, and pulmonary embolus. Respiratory alkalosis.
And why do these things cause respiratory alkalosis?
- They lead to hypoxia which causes hyperventilation.
Finally, for which disorder are these the possible causes? Vomiting, hyperaldosteronism, and selective diuretics such as loop and thiazide?
- Metabolic alkalosis
- There is a loss of hydrogen ions or loss of cations
Student doctor, please pause the tape and summarize what we have said about the possible causes of respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.
- Possible causes of respiratory acidosis are airway obstruction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, polio, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, multiple sclerosis, opiates, and sedatives. These cause respiratory acidosis because they lead to hypoventilation, so you’re not blowing off CO2. Possible causes of metabolic acidosis are Ketoacidosis including diabetic chronic renal failure, diarrhea, salicylate overdose, and lactic acidosis. These cause metabolic acidosis because they are metabolic processes that create more hydrogen ions in the blood. Pneumonia, high altitudes, salicylate overdose, and pulmonary embolus are all possible causes of respiratory alkalosis because they lead to hypoxia which causes hyperventilation. Finally, vomiting, hyperaldosternonism, and selective diuretics such as loop and thiazide are all possible causes of metabolic alkalosis because there is a loss of hydrogen ions or a loss of cations.
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