USMLE Step 1 Review 01 10 Anatomy Associated Cranial Nerves

USMLE Step 1 Review 01 10 Anatomy Associated Cranial Nerves

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Begin 01 10 Anatomy Associated Cranial Nerves Transcription

Let’s bring the cranial nerves into this.

Branchial arch 1 is innervated by what cranial nerve?

  • V3, the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, cranial nerve five, the third part.

What group of muscles is the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, cranial nerve V3 innervating, having to do with the primary function of branchial arch 1?

  • The muscle of mastication.

What is the cranial nerve innervating branchial arch 2?

  • Cranial nerve 7, the facial nerve.

What group of muscles is being innervated?

  • The muscles for facial expression.

What is the cranial nerve that innervates branchial arch three?

  • Cranial nerve 9, the glossopharyngeal nerve.

What function is it participating in?

  • Swallowing.

What muscle is it innervating?

  • Stylopharyngeus.

How does stylopharyngeus participate in swallowing?

  • It elevates the pharynx and larynx to help get it out of the way during swallowing.

Branchial arch 4 is innervated by what cranial nerve?

  • Cranial nerve 10, the vagus nerve.

What two functions is branchial arch 4 involved in?

  • Swallowing and voice.

What group of muscles in branchial arch 4 is innervated by cranial nerve 10, the vagus, involved in swallowing?

  • The constrictors of the pharynx.

Also, on branchial arch 4 we have a single muscle that participates in voice. What is it?

  • The cricothyroid muscle.

What type of muscle is that in relation to the larynx?

  • An extrinsic muscle.

What is the function of the cricothyroid?

  • To raise or lower the pitch of the voice and produce inflexion in the voice.

In branchial arch 4, the constrictors of the pharynx swallowing and the cricothyroid- voice, pitch and inflexion- are both innervated by a branch of the vagus nerve, cranial nerve 10. What is this branch?

  • The superior laryngeal branch.

In branchial arch 6, what group of muscles participates in voice?

  • The intrinsic muscles of the larynx.

And what is their function?

  • To produce the vibration of the voice itself.

These muscles of branchial arch 6 are innervated by a different branch of the vagus nerve, cranial nerve 10. Which branch?

  • The recurrent laryngeal branch.

The right and left branch recurrent laryngeal branches of cranial nerve 10, the vagus nerve, going to the cricothyroid muscle of the larynx, actually loop under two structures on their way going back up. What are the two structures on the right and left?

  • On the right, the subclavian artery. On the left, the arch of the aorta.

What branchial arch does the branch of the aorta and the right subclavian artery derive from?

  • Branchial arch 4.

What skeletal structure has moved cranial during development to cause the recurrent laryngeal branch to be trapped underneath the arch of the aorta and the right subclavian artery?

  • The larynx.

The laryngeal cartilages are derived from what two branchial arches?

  • 4 and 6.

Moving up in the neck, what branchial arch gives rise to the common carotid artery?

  • 3.

Branchial arch 6 also gives rise to two muscles that become displaced, one into the neck and the other to the upper back. What are they?

  • Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius.

What cranial nerve innervates those two muscles?

  • Cranial nerve 11, the spinal accessory nerve.

So what two groups of muscles does branchial arch 6 give rise two?

  • The intrinsic muscles of the larynx and the two displaced muscles above.

Specifically, what nerve innervates the intrinsic muscles of the larynx of branchial arch 6?

  • The recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve, cranial nerve 10.

What nerve innervates those two displaced muscles, the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius?

  • Cranial nerve 11, the spinal accessory nerve.

Quiz time. I’ll give the cranial nerve and you respond with the branchial arch number.

Facial nerve, cranial nerve 7?

  • Branchial arch 2.

The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, V3?

  • Branchial arch 1.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, cranial nerve 9?

  • Branchial arch 3.

Superior laryngeal branch of vagus nerve, cranial nerve 10?

  • Branchial arch 4.

The recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve, cranial nerve 10?

  • Branchial arch 6.

****END OF TRANSCRIPTION****

 

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