On these “Gold Standard Step 1 Facts” pages you will find Free:
- USMLE Audio Review files from our “Gold Standard USMLE Reviews”
- Transcriptions of those files
- And videos (as they become available)
The idea is that you can review for the USMLE online by:
- Listening to the Audio
- Following along with the transcription
- Or by watching the video (if available)
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Let’s continue our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 02 14 Anatomy Mouth Below
Begin 02 14 Anatomy Mouth Transcription
This long section is on the digestive tract from top to bottom. Some things will seem simple to you, but don’t worry. There will be plenty of detail that you will see on the boards. I would estimate that easily 20% of anatomy board questions are on the GI tract. Digestion, of course, is the process of breaking down and absorbing nutrients. Those nutrients that are burnt for energy.
What is the biochemical process involved there?
Two types of energy liberation processes going on in the body -What are these two processes?
- The internal and the external respiration.
Both the internal and external respiration are included in what type of metabolism in the body?
- The intermediate metabolism.
Now, the internal respiration is the release of energy from the oxidation of products that have been absorbed through the digestive tract.
What is the external respiration?
- Movement of oxidation into the alveoli via the respiratory tract.
Where does digestion begin?
- In the mouth.
What starts being digested in the mouth?
- Starch and fats.
What are the two enzymes?
- Salivary amylase and lingual lipase.
What stops the salivary amylase from working further down in the digestive tract?
- The low pH of the stomach.
Ok, what are the seven cranial nerves involved in digestion?
- Cranial nerves I, II, V, VII, XI, X, and XII.
What are the functions for cranial nerves I and II?
- Olfaction(smell) and sight.
****END OF TRANSCRIPTION****
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