On these “Gold Standard Step 1 Facts” pages you will find Free:
- USMLE Audio Review files from our “Gold Standard USMLE Reviews”
- Transcriptions of those files
- And videos (as they become available)
The idea is that you can review for the USMLE online by:
- Listening to the Audio
- Following along with the transcription
- Or by watching the video (if available)
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Let’s start our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 25 16 Auditory Cortices, Motor Cortices Below
Begin 25 16 Auditory Cortices, Motor Cortices Transcription
What would be the result of a lesion to the primary auditory cortex?
- These are areas 41 and 42. Partial deafness.
And this partial deafness is due to the representation of what nerves?
- Due to the bilateral cochlear representation.
Student doctor, what would be the result of a lesion to the auditory association cortex?
- This is area 22. Split this again into a dominant or a nondominant lobes. We’ll take the dominant lobe first. A lesion to the auditory association cortex in the dominant lobe results in Wernicke’s aphasia. Now if the lesion to the auditory association cortex is in the nondominant lobe, the result is sensory disprosity.
Student doctor, what is sensory disprosity?
- Sensory disprosity refers to the inability to perceive the pitch or rhythm of speech.
Student doctor, what would be the result of a lesion to the primary motor cortex?
- This is area 4. Contralateral upper motor lesion symptoms.
Now what would be a result of a bilateral lesion that would help you distinguish this from a contralateral or unilateral lesion?
- A bilateral lesion to the primary motor cortex results, among other things, in urinary incontinence.
Student doctor, what would be the results if the premotor cortex were affected on the dominant side?
- A lesion to the premotor cortex on the dominant side would result in sympathetic apraxia.
Now what would be the result of a lesion to the supplementary motor cortex?
- Speech defects.
Now, a bilateral lesion in the supplementary motor cortex results in what?
- Hypertonus of the flexor muscles without paralysis.
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