On these “Gold Standard Step 1 Facts” pages you will find Free:
- USMLE Audio Review files from our “Gold Standard USMLE Reviews”
- Transcriptions of those files
- And videos (as they become available)
The idea is that you can review for the USMLE online by:
- Listening to the Audio
- Following along with the transcription
- Or by watching the video (if available)
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Let’s start our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 25 19 Lesions of the Cortex Below
Begin 25 19 Lesions of the Cortex Transcription
Alright, let’s review lesions of the cortex. I’ll give the area where the lesion is, please respond with the pathology.
A lesion to Wernicke’s area in the temporal lobe?
- Fluent aphasia. This is also called receptive aphasia. And what is fluent or receptive aphasia? The inability to receive and understand speech.
Now what would be the result of a lesion in the sensory cortex of the parietal lobe?
- Contralateral hypoesthesia and astereognosis.
Now what is astereognosis?
- This is the inability to distinguish between various shapes and textures by touch.
Now what three things are likely to result from a superior parietal lobule?
- Contralateral astereognosis, sensory neglect, and anosopagnosia.
What is contralateral sensory neglect?
- It means that the patient tends to not use the contralateral limb because of contralateral astereognosis.
And what is contralateral anosopagnosia?
- Oddly enough, the patient may even deny that there is anything wrong with the contralateral limb that they are not using, ignoring, and neglecting the care of.
What would be the result of a lesion to the motor and premotor cortex in the frontal lobe?
- This would result in contralateral spastic paralysis.
And what would result in bilateral lesion of the hippocampus in the temporal lobe?
- This will result in the ability to make new memories.
What would result in the lesion to the Broca’s area in the frontal lobe?
- Nonfluent aphasia.
What is meant by nonfluent aphasia?
- This means that the patient cannot make speech at all, but does understand language. And another term for this: expressive aphasia.
Will the patient be able to write?
- No, they simply cannot find words to express themselves even though they can understand words spoken to them.
And what is the syndrome that will result from a bilateral lesion to the temporal lobe?
- This will result in Kluver-Bucy Syndrome.
What are the four symptoms of the Kluver-Bucy Syndrome?
- Hypersexuality, visual agnosia, hyperphagia, and docility.
What is visual agnosia?
- This is the inability to identify and understand objects seen visually.
What would be the result of a lesion in the prefrontal cortex in the frontal lobe?
- In general terms patient will lose abstraction and judgement.
And what would be the result of a unilateral lesion to the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe?
- A unilateral lesion will result in slight hearing loss.
Now what would be the result of a bilateral lesion to the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe?
- If bilateral, cortical deafness will result.
****END OF TRANSCRIPTION****
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