On these “Gold Standard Step 1 Facts” pages you will find Free:
- USMLE Audio Review files from our “Gold Standard USMLE Reviews”
- Transcriptions of those files
- And videos (as they become available)
The idea is that you can review for the USMLE online by:
- Listening to the Audio
- Following along with the transcription
- Or by watching the video (if available)
If you like what you here, you can purchase the entire Gold Standard Step 1 MP3 audio USMLE review for your iPhone, iPod, or computer here.
Let’s start our USMLE Review with Anatomy from the Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review program.
Play USMLE Audio MP3 25 20 Basal Ganglia Introduction Below
Begin 25 20 Basal Ganglia Introduction Transcription
Now we’re going to move on to section 4, the basal ganglia.
The basal ganglia are deep cortical nuclei of what three brain structures?
- The telencephalon, the diencephalon, and the midbrain.
The basal ganglia are involved in the feedback regulation of what function?
The basal ganglia functions with the cerebellum as part of what system?
- The extrapyramidal system.
And what other brain structure, just to review, that the basal ganglia functions with as part of the extrapyramidal system?
- The cerebellum.
The basal ganglia evaluate and correct movements as they happen. What is the principal mechanism of control exhibited by the basal ganglia in order to evaluate and correct movement as they happen?
- This is termed double inhibition.
What are two major pathways in the basal ganglia by which double inhibition is achieved?
- The direct pathway and the indirect pathway.
What is the function of the direct pathway?
- To facilitate movement.
And the function of the indirect function?
- To inhibit movement.
Student doctor, please list the five main components of the basal ganglia. Refer to figure 4.3. The caudate nucleus, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus.
Which two components of the basal ganglia are sometimes called the striatum?
- The caudate nucleus and the putamen.
And what two parts are sometimes called the lenticular nucleus?
- Refer to figure 4.2. The putamen and globus pallidus.
What part of the basal ganglia is superior to the thalamus on each side?
- The caudate nucleus.
And what structure is medial to the caudate nucleus and superior to the thalamus on each side?
- The lateral mentricles.
Which part of the basal ganglia is most lateral to the thalamus?
- The caudate nucleus.
And which part of the basal ganglia lies just inferior to the body of the thalamus?
- The subthalamic nucleus.
And which component of the basal ganglia is inferior to the subthalamic nucleus?
- The substantia nigra.
Finally, what part of the basal ganglia lies somewhat superior and lateral to both subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra?
- The globus pallidus.
What structure that we have not named yet, lies between the thalamus and the caudate nucleus, and the globus pallidus?
- The internal capsule.
Student doctor, what is the type of Dopamine receptor that is found in greatest concentration in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia contains the greatest concentration of type 2 dopamine receptors in the brain.
****END OF TRANSCRIPTION****
Want More USMLE Step 1 Review Facts?
- Download the complete 82 Hour Gold Standard USMLE Step 1 Audio Review Here
- Find the complete list of Gold Standard Step 1 USMLE Facts Here