USMLE Step 2 Review 18 12 Drugs of Choice Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

USMLE Step 2 Review 18 12 Drugs of Choice Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

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Begin 18 12 Drugs of Choice Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Transcription

What is the drug of choice and rout of administration for many of the viral hemorrhagic fevers, as demonstrated with Lassa fever, including concomitant renal syndrome or pneumonia?

  • Ribavirin IV.

And the trade name for Ribavirin?

  • Virazole.

What viral hemorrhagic fever has been reported in the US within the past few years in both New Mexico and New York City which was contracted by breathing the dust from rat droppings, and for which no benefit has been demonstrated with the use of Ribavirin/Virazole?

  • This is the Hanta virus.

What vitamin used in high doses for at least 6 months may be used to lower triglyceride levels?

  • Niacin.

What non-drug strategy may be effective with early mastitis in the postpartum breast?

  • Increased breastfeeding.

What is the likely organism in mastitis, especially severe?

  • Staph aureus.

And what is the drug of choice for severe mastitis?

  • Dicloxacillin.

And the trade name for Dicloxacillin?

  • Dynapen.

What class of drug is Dicloxacillin/Dynapen?

  • A PRSP- Penicillinase-Resistant Synthetic Penicillin.

If the patient is allergic to Penicillin, what is the drug of choice alternative for mastitis (Also give the route of administration)?

  • Cefazolin IV.

And 2 trade names for Cefazolin?

  • Ancef, Kefzol.

What class of drug is Cefazolin, which is Ancef or Kefzol?

  • It’s a first-generation cephalosporin.

Why is a first-generation Cephalosporin the alternative drug of choice?

  • First-generation Cephalosporins are best for gram positives including Staph aureus, except of course, for Methicillin-resistant staph aureus.

If the patient has a breast abscess instead of mastitis, what 2 non-drug strategies should be employed first?

  • Discontinue nursing, incise and drain the abscess.

What is the likely organism in a breast abscess?

  • Staph aureus.

And what are the 2 alternatives for drug of choice for a breast abscess?

  • Nafcillin or Oxacillin IV.

Trade name for Nafcillin?

  • Unipen.

And the trade name for Oxacillin?

  • Prostaphlin.

What class of drug are Nafcillin/Uniupen and Oxacillin/Prostaphlin?

  • They’re both PRSPs- Penicillinase Resistant Synthetic Penicillins.

If the patient is allergic to Penicillin, what is the drug of choice alterantive for breast abscess?

  • Cefazolin IV.

And 2 trade names for Cefazolin again?

  • Ancef, Kefzol.

What class of drug is Cefazolin/Ancef/Kefzol?

  • First-generation Cephalosporin.

What vitamin should be used by women who are pregnant or who wish to become pregnant, in order to prevent neural tube defects?

  • Folic acid.

What is the drug of choice for herpes simplex encephalitis?

  • Acyclovir IV.

And the trade name for Acyclovir?

  • Zovirax.

In the USA, what 2 animals in proximity create a host and carrier environment for Echinococcus granulosus, a type of parasitic worm?

  • Dogs and sheep.

What is the disease produced in humans, especially in liver, lungs, and brain, by the ingested eggs of Echinococcus granulosus?

  • Cystic hydatid disease.

What is the first step in treatment of hydatid cysts?

  • Surgical excision if possible.

What are the 2 drugs of choice for Echinococcus granulosus causing cystic hydatid disease, keeping in mind that only 1/3 are cured, and only 3/4 experience relief from symptoms, because the drugs are not effective against calcified cysts?

  • Mebendazole or Albendazole.

And the trade name for Mebendazole, which is the one usually used?

  • Vermox.

What is the NSAID of choice for gout (it’s also used for arthritis, bursitis, and tendonitis)?

  • Indomethacin.

And the trade name for Indomethacin for gout?

  • Indocin.

What is the organism in head nits?

  • Pediculus humanus capitus.

And the topical drug of choice for head nits?

  • Permethrin liquid.

And the trade name for Permethrin liquid?

  • Nix.

What is the current strategy of choice for perinatal active genital herpes simplex, that is, active genital herpes simplex in the mother at time of delivery?

  • C-section, no matter how long the membranes have been ruptured.

If there are no lesions or symptoms, what is the recommended strategy?

  • Vaginal delivery.

What drug may be of use, but has not yet been adequately tested, to be the treatment of choice?

  • Acyclovir.

Trade name for Acyclovir?

  • Zovirax.

****END OF TRANSCRIPTION****

 

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